November 11


NEW Trip Generation, 8th Edition

By Mike Spack

November 11, 2008

Trip gen
I received the brand new, 8th Edition of the Institute of Transportation Engineers' (aka ITE) Trip Generation informational report.  See my previous post explaining what this report is and how it is used.  The 7th Edition should no longer be cited in traffic studies.

I am proud to see Traffic Data Inc. listed as Source 621.  We contributed data on pharmacies with drive through lanes and coffee shops (with and without drive through lanes).  Now I can stop referencing our special studies and just use the data published in Trip Generation.

One large change I am happy to see is related to banks.  The new Trip Generation removed all of the data prior to 2000 in recognition of online banking, atms, and shifted banking hours.  The result is that the traffic predicted to come out of banks has been approximately cut in half.  This matches what I have instinctively been thinking (and congratulations to Tom Sohrweide of SEH who has been cutting his trip generation from banks in half based on his judgment).  Now I have the data to back me up and I don't need to cringe when a developer tells me he is thinking a bank will go on one of his outlots.

  • Is there any way you could email the pages referencing the new bank trip generation rates (Land Use 912), as well the supercenter rates (Land Use 813). I have hearing tonight and have not received my 8th Edition yet (though ordered quite a while ago!). Your contribution to the 8th Edition (as well as to this specific request) is greatly appreciated.

  • Tijana,
    I think I am a little late, but here are average rates for each land use:
    Drive-In Bank (912)
    Weekday – 148.15 trips per 1000 sq ft, 50% entering/50% exiting
    A.M. Peak Hour (between 7-9 a.m.) – 12.35 trips per 1000 sq ft, 56% entering/44% exiting
    P.M. Peak Hour (between 4-6 p.m.) – 25.82 trips per 1000 sq ft, 50% entering/50% exiting
    Free Standing Discount Superstore (813)
    Weekday – 53.13 trips per 1000 sq ft, 50% entering/50% exiting
    A.M. Peak Hour (between 7-9 a.m.) – 1.67 trips per 1000 sq ft, 56% entering/44% exiting
    P.M. Peak Hour (between 4-6 p.m.) – 4.61 trips per 1000 sq ft, 49% entering/51% exiting

  • Mike, Can you tell me the national employee densities (Employees per 1,000 SF) for General Light Industrial, General Heavy Industrial, Industrial Park, Manufacturing, & Warehousing? I have the 5th Edition numbers & wanted to compare the changes, if any. Thanks, Tim

  • The 8th Edition doesn’t have Employees per 1,000, but it can be calculated by dividing daily trip per employee by daily trips per 1,000. Here they are (Employees per 1,000 SF from the 8th Edition):
    General Light Industrial =0.43
    General Heavy Industrial = 0.55
    Industrial Park = 0.48
    Manufacturing = 0.56
    Warehousing = 1.09

  • Mike, Thanks for your response. The 5th Edition numbers are significantly higher.
    Gen Light Ind. – 2.16
    Gen Heavy Ind. – 1.82
    Ind. Park – 2.00
    Manufacturing – 1.87
    Warehousing 1.28
    Can you explain the difference?
    A Build-Out Projection in a CA community showed the following:
    Light Ind. – 1,030 SF/Employee
    Heavy Ind. – 1,500 SF/Employee
    Business Park – 600 SF/Employee
    These #’s are between the 5th Editon & 8th Edition.

  • Sorry – I am moving too fast and did the inverse of the calculation. Here are what the numbers should be:
    General Light Industrial = 2.33
    General Heavy Industrial = 1.82
    Industrial Park = 2.08
    Manufacturing = 1.79
    Warehousing = 0.92

  • Mike,
    I am interested in the revised trip generation numbers for pharmacies with 2 drive through lanes.
    Congratulations on the inclusion of your research.

  • The new (8th Edition) average rates for land use 881 are:
    weekday – 88.16 trips per 1000 sq ft gross floor area
    am peak hour (between 7 and 9 am) – 2.66 trips per 1000 sq ft gross floor area
    pm peak hour (between 4 and 6 pm) – 10.35 trips per 1000 sq ft gross floor area
    The R Squared value on the data is too low to be calculated so no fitted curve equations are given. The normal caveats with using the Trip Generation Report should be kept in mind.

  • Ted,
    The Eighth Edition rates for ITE Code 630 (Clinic) are exactly the same as the Seventh Edition. The data set is very limited, so I am not sure I want to put it out there. Let me know if you need specific numbers, but I assume you still have the Seventh Edition.

  • Mike,
    Thank you for the reply. I do not have the 7th edition. Could you post or email the rates?

  • Ted,
    Each of these rates is based on one to three studies, so use them with caution:
    5.18 trips per 1000 sq ft gross floor area in p.m. peak hour of adjacent street traffic (no directional distribution given)
    31.45 trips per 1000 sq ft gross floor area for weekday (50% in/50% out)
    0.90 trips per employee in a.m. peak hour of generator (50% in/50% out)
    7.75 trips per employee for weekday (50% in/50% out)
    1.23 trips per employee in p.m. peak hour of adjacent street traffic (41% in/59% out)
    1.31 trips per employee in p.m. peak hour of generator (50% in/50% out)

  • Mike, do the the numbers that are generated for a Post Office broken down into size of the office and community served? And is the 8th edition taking into account theses factor and the “drop” in customers/walk-in traffic served as tremendous shortfalls are upon the USPS? And last but not least, If the latest edition does indeed break down the various Post Office sizes,what should be the numbers for a small to medium size Post Office with a population of aprox. 5k residents,1350 PO boxes with 3700 street deliveries? I thank you for taking the time to answer my questions.
    Chester E. Cox

  • Chester,
    1. The data is broken down by either square footage of the facility or the number of employees. Nothing about community size.
    2. The data is from the 1980’s through the 2000’s. It doesn’t specifically account for recent trends.
    3. For small stores, there are two data points for 3,000 sq ft; one data point for 6,000 sq ft; and two data points for 10,000 sq ft.
    During the peak hour (p.m.), the average trip generation rate is 11.12 trips per thousand square feet (51% entering and 49% entering). So if you have a 3,000 sq ft store, we’d expect 17 trips in and 16 trips out in the evening rush hour. I need to give you a caveat that the average trip rate does not look too reliable. It is low for small stores and high for large stores.
    You may want to spend an hour with a local traffic engineer to go through the data in more detail. Several retail entities have commissioned their own trip generation studies when the Trip Generation Report data is limited or out of date. Email me or call me if you want to discuss this further (

  • Mike, I can’t afford the 8th edition. Can you please tell me what size range ITE uses for its code 813 (Free standing discount superstore)? Thanks very much!

  • Free Standing Discount Superstore (ITE Code 813) ranges from 123,000 to 226,000 sq ft of gross floor area.

  • Mike, can I get the average daily trips in VPD for a multifamily development (#230)?

  • Mike,
    Is the trip rate/acre applied to site area and KSF applied to building floor area?
    Do you normally use 39vpd/KSF or 19.50vpd/Acre for Nursery (Wholesale)? If KSF is applied to floor area then using KSF rate will be significantly higher if we have a one acre nursery with says 200KSF of office. One is 78vpd and the other 19.5vpd

  • Samuel,
    You are right – acreage applies to the total acreage of the nursery while the KSF (1000s of square feet) applies to the sales center/office building. You should do the calculations for both the building square footage and the nursery acreage. Hopefully the trip generation is approximately the same for both calculations, but to be conservative I’d use the higher trip generation number.

  • Hi Mike,
    How do we normally convert the peak hour traffic into daily traffic? For instance, the AM and PM peak rates for Nursery (Wholesale) are 0.26 and 0.45 but how are they converted into the daily rate of 19.50?

  • Samuel,
    They aren’t converted. Each rate is an observed based on data collected in the field.

  • Mike,
    Do you have any available data – daily trip generation for Home Business (Hair Saloon)?

  • Hi Mike,
    Have we got any trip rate on Home business ex. hair dresser, tax agents..(both peak and daily rates)?

  • Nothing on home businesses. I think you’d have to talk to the operator to get a handle on their projected traffic.

  • Mike,
    We are in a town just estabishing traffic rates. We are a 2400 sq ft women’s clothing store in a strip setting. However, we do own our square footage. Currently we are being classified as a Specialty Retail Center with an ITE weekly trip rate per 1000 sq feet of 284.07. This seems way to high for a small store. Can you tell me if you feel that this land use classification is accurate?
    Other strip centers, owned by a single owner with multiple tenants are receiving the same class and rate.
    Thank you

  • Do you have weekend rates for the following:
    City Park 411,
    County Park 412,
    Senior Hsg -attached 252,
    assisted living 254,
    retirement community 255,
    nursing home 620,
    general office 710,
    single tenant office bldg 715,
    low rise apt 221,
    apartment 220
    Thank you

  • Would like more information on rates for 934 (Fast Food w/ window) and 944 (Gas station). Would a fast food restaurant have a higher trip generation than a 14 pump gas station?

  • hi,
    What are the trip generation rates for museums in the ITE 8th Edition trip generation manual? Cheers.

  • Fast food restaurant and gas station generate about the same amount of traffic, but you need to dig in to the sizes of the uses and the time period.
    8th Edition doesn’t have a museum land use and I don’t think there is a comparable land use in there.
    Some of the other requests are too large and I suggest you purchase the report at

  • In the Trip Generation Manual (7th edition)does Average Vehicle Trip Ends VS Employees;
    on a Weekday represents the trips generated only be the employees or does it include other vehicles (non employees)?

  • Mike, In January 07, 2009 you provided data on # of employees per 1,000 SF for the following building types:
    General Light Industrial = 2.33
    General Heavy Industrial = 1.82
    Industrial Park = 2.08
    Manufacturing = 1.79
    Warehousing = 0.92
    Have these #’s been updated since the 8th edition was published?
    Do you have similar numbers for office uses? Thanks, Tim

  • How does one use your ITE Trip Generation Rates spreadsheet to calculate the # of employees per square foot? Such as,
    Corporate Headquarters 714 Employees-2.33
    Is the 2.33 the number per 1,000 Square Feet?

  • The 8th Edition is the latest and greatest. Tim,
    Editions are on a 5 to 10 year publishing cycle.
    The report doesn’t give number of employees per square foot. You can try to infer it by cross referencing rates, but the underlying data may have been collected at different buildings (i.e. some reporting rates by square footage and others reporting by employee). Buyer beware.

  • Mike, I’m a member of a neighborhood association that is reviewing a new development on one of our important intersections. Could you please provide the daily and peak rates for a grocery store (23,400 sq ft, food only – so it’s not really a supermarket), retail/restaurant (5 bays, 4,365 total sq ft) and a 4,000 sq ft bank with 3 lane thru lanes? Thank you for any assistance you can provide.

  • Thanks Mike. I discovered the worksheet shortly after posting my request. It’s da bomb! You’ve got a very informative site. Thanks for many this info available to us peons…..

  • Mike,
    Do you have or you aware of any pass-by and diverted linked-trips data for high schools?

  • Scott,
    I’m not aware of any pass-by or diverted linked trip rates for high schools. My gut reaction is that they would be relatively low and not impact your traffic forecasts. I don’t think many high school aged folks are on the road during rush hour UNLESS they’re going to school (hence they wouldn’t be there as pass-by or diverted trips). If you had a large proportion of parents dropping off kids, maybe you’d have a noticeable rate of diverted linked trips but I think your pass-by rates would be very low too.
    Let me know if you end up doing some kind of data collection effort on the topic. I’d post your results.

  • Hi Mike,
    do you have any information on Roller Skating Rinks?
    how do you think Roller Skating Rink trip generation compares to Ice Skating Rinks?

  • I don’t have any data on a roller rink. There’s one close to my house and it doesn’t have the same traffic pattern as an ice rink. A lot more people end up roller skating at the same time vs. ice skating.
    Assuming you can’t collect data at an existing roller rink, I think the next best thing is to try to back into a trip generation based on their occupancy. (i.e. 300 person occupancy divided by 3 people per car divided by 60% entering/40% exiting in the peak hour = 60 in/40 out).
    Based on the rink by my house, their peaks mimic a movie theater. Their peak periods on the weekdays are after rush hour, but their true peaks occur on the weekends.

  • Hi mike, I have a traffic study that used the 7th edition rates. Do you have a copy of the rates that you can post or send me?

  • Hi mike, another question. I
    Should a traffic study include not only am and pm peak, but also total daily trips?

  • We do not have the 7th edition rates in a spreadsheet.
    Which study periods to analyze (a.m. peak hour vs. p.m. peak hour vs. daily) is up to the traffic study author and reviewing agency. Peak hour volumes are much more illustrative than daily volumes.

  • Mike,
    We are working on a Planned Unit Development that will be connecting to an existing road with an ADT of 11,000 as per the City. Our PUD contains 30 acres and will contain 56,700 SF of mixed use commercial and 336 apts containing 504 bedrooms. I have come up with an additional 4,350 trips generated by our development, does this sound reasonable?
    This is in a college town and the development will be served by a community transit system that runs every 10 minutes. There are also two bike lanes adjacent to the property.
    We are just trying to get the PUD zoning approved. Once it is approved we will have to present a full traffic analysis. The developer cannot justify that cost prior to the zoning change not being granted.

  • I’m looking for daily (Mon-Fri) trip generations for general office code 710. The general office is 2160 sf.
    Thank you

  • I wonder if you have a trip generation rate for outdoor storage of industrial parts & materials to be used in connection with manufacturing taking place on an adjacent and other nearby industrial properties, owned by the same party who owns the open storage parcel. The adjacent and nearby manufacturing properties exist, with some open storage already. The new open storage industrial parcel will have no building or any assembling or manufacturing of any kind. It will just have open storage to complement the open storage that exists on the other parcels. I don’t find any traffic generation factor to this stand alone open storage use. Do you know of any?

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    Mike Spack

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