June 6


Traffic Signal Warrant Primer

By Mike Spack

June 6, 2017

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, MUTCD, Traffic Control, traffic data, Traffic Signal Warrant Analysis, traffic signal warrants, traffic signals, warrant, warrant guidelines

By Bryant Ficek, PE, PTOE

The best place to start when talking about traffic signal warrants is to understand the definition of a warrant itself. According to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), a warrant is a threshold condition based upon average or normal conditions that, if found to be satisfied as part of an engineering study, shall result in analysis of other traffic conditions or factors to determine whether a traffic control device or other improvement is justified.

With that being said, warrants are not a substitute for your judgement as an engineer. Warrants are simply guidelines that we use as part of traffic studied to help determine the best course of action in a particular scenario.

There are different types of warrants, all dealing with traffic control, which include:

  • Side-Street (Two Way) Stop Control
  • All Way Stop Control
  • Traffic Signal Control
  • Roundabout Control

For this piece, the focus is specifically on traffic signal warrants and the guidelines that are in place to help determine when installing or improving upon a traffic signal is justified.

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) lists 9 warrants for evaluating traffic signals:

  • Warrant 1, Eight-hour vehicular volume
  • Warrant 2, Four-hour vehicular volume
  • Warrant 3, Peak hour vehicular volume
  • Warrant 4, Pedestrian volume
  • Warrant 5, School crossing
  • Warrant 6, Coordinated signal system
  • Warrant 7, Crash experience
  • Warrant 8, Roadway network
  • Warrant 9, Intersection near a grade crossing

The first three warrants are generally the most used and easiest to collect the necessary data (traffic counts). Other warrants can usually be ruled out if not applicable to the specific intersection you are reviewing. For example, you won’t be using Warrant 5, School Crossing, if there’s not a school in the immediate area. It’s also a good idea to check with the governing agency to see if all warrants are equal in their eyes. For instance, the Minnesota Department of Transportation looks to Warrant 1 to be met before a traffic signal is installed.

The three primary pieces of data to collect when evaluating traffic signal warrants are: layout of intersection (existing or future), speed limits, and volumes (we like to include turning movements, pedestrians, cyclists, etc.). Other relevant data to collect includes crash data, progression of other signals in corridor and proximity to schools, parks or other high-pedestrian areas. With this information, the warrants are fairly straight forward. Examine the thresholds, compare against the information and data you’ve gathered, determine if the threshold is met and the warrant is satisfied.

With practicality and efficiency in mind, we’ve put together some tips and tricks to consider when evaluating the traffic signal warrants:

  • Use the 85th percentile speed instead of the posted speed limit (check out our article 85th Percentile Speed Explained)
  • Bicyclists can be counted as either pedestrians or vehicles in your analysis
  • Where there is no indication as to which is the major or minor road at an intersection, run your analysis both ways to get a clearer picture
  • In many states, if you have right turn lanes at an intersection, you can remove the right turning lane volume and discount the right turn lane from the total number of approach lanes
  • In a situation where you have a significant number of left turn movements from an approach, you could look at those left turns as your minor leg and the conflicting thru volume as the major leg
  • Last, but not least, use our Traffic Signal Warrant Analysis tool to assist you with accurately analyzing your data and warrants

Warrants are great guidelines for determining whether an intersection justifies the installation or improvement of a traffic signal. While they are no substitute for your expertise and judgement as a traffic engineer, they are an extremely useful way to help you determine the next course of action based on the data you’ve collected.

Want more information on traffic signal warrants? Check out these tools:


Bryant Ficke Bio

  • Thank you for this plain English primer on this wonky topic.

    I live in a rural area near a very busy state trunk line w/ 2 thru lanes and 1 center turn lane (55 mph speed limit). It is currently controlled by stop signs for the minor street (which I live on). The nearest traffic signal to the east is over 5 miles away and about 1 1/4 mi. to the west. It has become increasingly harder to even turn right onto this trunk line from the minor street that I live on since there are very few gaps in traffic from the east. People living on the south side of the trunk line have a much harder time turning left (west) due to the lack of gaps plus the east-bound traffic. How are lack of gaps in traffic factored into the analysis when determining a warrant for a traffic signal?

  • Can we do a study when the schools are out for either a signal or 4 way stop, and the reason (FHWA or ITE)

  • When you say that the warrants do not substitute for your expertise as an engineer, what do you mean? We are struggling to convince the other party involved in the intersection that a signal or roundabout is needed. We need their buy-in and likely a permit.

  • There are many intersections that meet a one of the warrants for a traffic signal that do not have a traffic signal installed. Engineering judgment needs to be applied to prioritize government’s limited funds. Also, rates of minor crashes typically go up with the installation of a traffic signal so they aren’t a magic answer. Every intersection requires careful analysis beyond just meeting the minimum warrant requirement.

  • Yes, you can try to forecast in school conditions, but I’d wait until school is in session. Of course if you meet warrants while school is out of session at an intersection adjacent to a school, you would likely have justification to install the signal since volumes (and children pedestrians) would be higher in session.

  • Hi Mike

    The link to the spreadsheets arent working. Could you please re upload them?

    Also, is there any other spreadsheet i can use where i can simply load my volumes/data and it would let us know if a certain warrant is satisfied or not?

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    Mike Spack

    My mission is to help traffic engineers, transportation planners, and other transportation professionals improve our world.

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